The Wisdom behind The Islamic Laws Regarding Women Part Two

Islamic Rulings - Living Shariah Verdicts

Islamic Questions & Answers

By Sheikh ‘Abdur-Rahman ‘Abdul-Khaliq

Islam and Women’s Work

The Wisdom Behind The Islamic Laws Regarding Women Part One

Islam House

In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate

All praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of all Being, the All-merciful, the All-compassionate, the Master of the Day of Judgment.1 May Allah’s mercy and peace be upon all of His Messengers and truthful and pure Prophets; and may His mercy and peace be upon the master of the children of Adam and the seal of the Prophets, our Prophet Muhammad, the trustworthy Messenger; and may His mercy and peace be upon Muhammad’s family, companions and whoever follows his guidance till the Day of Judgment.

To Proceed:

...In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate

All praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of all Being, the All-merciful, the All-compassionate, the Master of the Day of Judgment.1 May Allah’s mercy and peace be upon all of His Messengers and truthful and pure Prophets; and may His mercy and peace be upon the master of the children of Adam and the seal of the Prophets, our Prophet Muhammad, the trustworthy Messenger; and may His mercy and peace be upon Muhammad’s family, companions and whoever follows his guidance till the Day of Judgment.

...To Proceed:

Islam and Women’s Work

Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) lifted from women the obligation of working to provide and support herself and her family. He made this obligation particular for men alone. Allah commanded men to be responsible for the care of women during all stages of their life.

• While she is a child, she is under the care of her father. This responsibility is not lifted except by her marriage or (his or her) death, nor does it cease after she reaches a certain age as occurs in the laws of the ignorant who rule by their desires and their shallow minds.

• After she marries, the responsibility falls on her husband so long as she is under his care due to the contract of marriage.

• If she has neither father or husband, the responsibility of her care falls on her brother who assumes the role of the father when he is not present; and if she has no brother then whoever is her closest male relative (from whom she would inherit and whom would inherit from her) would assume the role of her father.

• If she has no male relatives, the obligation falls upon the Muslim community. The responsibility of her care is a communal obligation; if none fulfills that, all have sinned.

Furthermore even if she is wealthy, Islam has dropped from her the obligation of assuming care of anyone. With the presence of her husband (or for that matter her parents), it is not required that she spend upon her children unless she seeks to do such as an act of righteousness, kindness and observing ties of the womb. She is not obligated to work in order to take care of herself or her children.

This lifting of the obligation of working for the purpose of providing for herself was in order to preserve her from being degraded, as many jobs that are sought to gain livelihood entail humiliation and hardship. Likewise this responsibility was lifted to preserve her from temptation and mixing with men and because this is from the specialization that Allah has made as a law for His creation.

If women were charged to work in order to provide for their livelihood in addition to their natural duties of pregnancy, child birth, and breast feeding this would be an obligation above what she could bear and would be an injustice to women. Or this work would be at the expense of her natural duties of pregnancy, birth, breast feeding and raising her children. And this is what exactly has occurred with all nations that have deviated from what Allah has made a natural state among His creation. In these ignorant un-Islamic societies, men are pleased with this situation as this gains for them greater gratification with women and drops from them a considerable amount of the responsibility of working and supporting her and her children. This obviously is a selfish attitude on the part of men. Sadly many women are pleased with this situation, I mean gathering between working outside the house to support herself and her natural duties of pregnancy and child birth and breast feeding.

This is because of her desire for amusement and to boast; not because there is any real human or moral value in her working outside the home.

Unlike what is claimed, women’s work has no real value boosting the economy. Rather the truth is that by competing with men for jobs outside the home, women are a cause in the spread of unemployment and an increase in the useless consumption of cosmetics, clothes, and perfumes that have all become necessary items for women working outside the home. Furthermore every woman that works outside the home is in most occasions a cause for denying an opportunity for a man who could work in her place. Again this is one factor in unemployment. Moreover the man who takes the place of a woman in the household cannot substitute her in her natural duties.

We say what is the economic, moral, or social value for women working in factories, armies, cleaning streets and airports, repairing trains, cleaning public restrooms, as a security guard, driving taxis, and all other occupations that humiliate women in those countries that live for this world alone and do not think of the Hereafter.

This is all from the wretched life that Allah has warned whoever distances himself from His way. Allah (Exalted be He) has said:

“... but whosoever turns away from My rememberance, his shall be a life of narrowness, and on the Resurrection Day We shall raise him blind.” He shall say, “O my Lord, why hast Thou raised me blind, when I was wont to see?” Allah shall say, “So [it must be]. Our signs came unto thee, and thou didst forget them; and in a like manner today thou art forgotten.” (The Quran 20:124)

Although Islam has not obligated women to work to seek a living and has appointed someone to be responsible for her during all her stages of her life; Islamic law has given women the right (so long as she has reached the age of maturity and is competent) to own and dispose of her properties without any guardianship over her (whether that be her father, husband or anyone else).

She has the right to own all forms of property, to buy and sell, give gifts and charity, and all forms of expenditure (without wastefulness) so long as it is her wealth and her acquisition. However if she is incompetent, Islam does not distinguish between men and women in declaring someone legally incompetent. Islam gave women the right to own and dispose of property, so that by this she could be a full legal personality possessing the full right to dispose of her wealth. Islam provides her with specific sources to acquire wealth, like the dower, inheritance, gifts, and all other lawful means for acquired wealth.

As women in Islamic law are not required to maintain themselves or others, she was given half of what men receive in inheritance in observation that she is not responsible for the maintenance of anyone and to replenish men’s wealth who alone are responsible to work and provide maintenance.

In this Islam opposed the ignorant un-Islamic practice that forbade women to inherit under any circumstance because she does not maintain anyone or fight against any enemy. Allah sent down in His Glorious Quran:

“To the men [of a family] a share of what parents and near kindred leave, and to the women a share of what parents and near kindred leave, whether it be little or much, a share apportioned…” (The Quran 4:7)

Without doubt those who claim that Islam is unjust toward women because it gives her half of what men receive in inheritance are ignorant of the distribution of rights and obligations in the pure, just Islamic law.

“Is the judgment of the pre-Islamic days of ignorance then that they are seeking? Yet who is better in judgment than Allah, for a people having certainty [in their faith]?” (The Quran 5:50)

Islamic Laws Governing Chastity

Islamic law aims to preserve the six indispensable necessities (i.e., religion, life, mind, progeny, wealth, and character) that a human being’s bliss or a good life upon earth cannot be achieved except with their preservation.

Islam has legislated laws that aim to preserve each of these six necessities.

What concerns us here for our discussion regarding the wisdom of Islam behind its specific legislations pertaining to women are the effects of these specific legislations upon preserving these six necessities and in particular the purity of one’s progeny and the correctness of his lineage to one’s parents thereby preserving the circle of relatives and the circle of the wombs. It is this lineage that distinguishes human beings on earth from all other animals.

The preservation of the purity of one’s progeny and the correctness of lineage to one’s parents is among those six indispensable necessities regarding which there is no bliss for humanity nor will humanity continue to exist without its preservation.

In order to preserve one’s lineage to his parents: 1. Islam forbade that a man under any circumstance marry his mother, daughter, sister, aunt (paternal or maternal), niece (from his brother or sister), wife’s mother, his wife’s daughter (if he had sexual relations with her mother)8 and the equivalents to these women to whom he is related by breast feeding, as Islam’s messenger has said:

“What is unlawful by reason of lineage is forbidden by reason of fosterage.”

The aim in forbidding marriage with these women is to preserve one’s lineage and the circle of wombs; and to allow men to become accustomed to a circle of women around him toward whom he feels no sexual desire, physical pleasure or possessiveness but rather toward whom he has feelings of love, mercy and respect. Hence the feeling a man has toward these women must be different than the feelings he has toward a woman whom he can marry and have sex.

Accordingly, Islam forbade a woman under any circumstance to marry her father, son, brother, uncle (paternal or maternal), nephew (from her brother or sister), her husband’s father or son, and likewise the equivalents to these men to whom she is bound by breast feeding. This is so that a woman may feel toward these men feelings of closeness and love that are free of any sexual desire.

2. In order to preserve the lineage and make the circle of the womb pure and clean, Islam ordered that marriage be announced, certified, and witnessed so that it may be distinguished from illicit sexual relations. To preserve the honor of women, Islam required of her guardian to pursue the marriage contract for his charge (i.e., daughter, sister, etc.). Hence she does not negotiate with a man for herself like a woman engaging in adultery or fornication. In order to preserve a woman’s dignity and guard her modesty and softness, her closest male relative settles the marriage contract for her.

3. Since illicit sexual intercourse is the plague that destroys the pure progeny and correct lineage, pure and good Islam (which is the law of Allah Who is All-Wise, Worthy of all praise) has by all means firmly closed and barred all doors leading to this plague. Islam cured this problem, before its occurrence; and has cured it after its occurrence (when it occurs) rooted it out and terminated all its effects on society. This is because the sexual instinct and natural inclination of men and women toward one another is among the strongest instincts if not the strongest.

Both men and women are weak before this instinct and this desire.

Without doubt that to fall into this plague and its spread means the destruction of the greatest ingredient for human bliss upon earth and that is purity of progeny and correct lineage. This will lead to destruction of the womb and the end of mercy. For with the spread of illicit sex there is a spread of illegitimate children. When there are many illegitimate children: the family comes to an end; the fabric of society is ripped apart; bonds of love are ended between society’s members; selfishness and narcissism becomes wide spread; and hatred and dislike is spread between people. The only feelings that remain are those of possessiveness, power, pleasure, pure self-interest, living for the moment and distancing of oneself from shouldering the responsibilities of marriage and raising children. This is a warning of the impending destruction, collapse, and loss of mercy, happiness and compassion.

4. In order to keep the progeny clean, the pure and good Islamic law ordered men and women to lower one’s glance from one another and commanded that women cover and hide their beauty from all men who are permitted to marry her.9

5. This Islamic law forbade a woman to travel alone without a guardian10.

It forbade that anyone enter her household while her husband or guardians are not present or for men (with the exception of her husband or guardian) to remain in private with them. The intent behind all these regulations is to preserve honor, to keep away from the areas of temptation and doubt, and to preserve trust and peace of mind regarding chastity and uprightness.

6. Without doubt, that the Islamic regulations regarding chastity (such as the women’s dress code and others) were never a barrier for women to reach the highest degree of perfection possible for her in terms in all its branches of knowledge, virtue and righteousness. Indeed the women’s dress code is among the greatest means that free men and women to reach their aims, as they are not preoccupied with the other sex all the time. Practice shows that those students who are in single sex universities are more apt to learn than those in coeducational institutions.

“Say to the believers, that they cast down their eyes and guard their private parts; that is purer for them. Allah is aware of the things they work. And say to the believing women, that they cast down their eyes and guard their private parts, and reveal not their adornment save such as is outward; and let them cast their headcoverings over the bosoms, and not reveal their adornment save to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband’s fathers, or their sons, or their husband’s sons, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or what their right hands own, or such men as attend to them, not having sexual desire, or children who have not yet attained knowledge of women’s private parts; nor let them stamp their feet, so that their hidden ornament may be known. And turn all together in repentance to Allah, O you believers; haply so you will prosper.” [The Quran 24:30-31]

My brothers and sisters everywhere!

These regulations that Islam has legislated to preserve character and to guard the purity of offspring and correctness of lineage are opposed bythose who follow their desires and are short sighted, those who want tolive for their desires and their self interests even if this results in every evil and sin. The attack of these perverts on Islamic laws that govern chastity and the preservation of lineage was not as they claim out of their desire to protect women, her rights or to show justice to her. Rather their aim was to take women while still in their youth out of their homes so that she can be within their reach whenever and wherever they want, to deceive married women not to preserve the rights of her husband or guard her lineage, and to make a woman in every stage of her life a plaything and an object of pleasure for men that he may fulfill his sexual desire in every way and at the same time leave her to deal with what is in her womb, while he is free to have many as girl friends and passing lovers.

In the end, women are left after pregnancy to shoulder all the responsibilities.

Either she will commit the crime of murdering her child prior to giving birth or after; or either she will give up her child to a foster home where it will raised far away from any family as animals are raised in shelters; or either she will throw her baby away in the trash. If there remains anything of her maternal instincts, she will try to find some means to take care of this child. She might look for another man to replace the first who after fulfilling his desires left her.

This painful reality is what has resulted in the sinful, amoral societies wherein men claim that they want to preserve women’s rights and give her equality with men. This reality is the greatest proof that their claim that they seek equality is only a lie and a means of deception.

Women were the sacrificial ram for this call to “equality.” For her to seek a livelihood has become a necessity of life and it is against her nature and constitution.

A man is able to have sex with a thousand women and will never carry anything in his belly, and still will be able to have sex with a thousand more. While a woman might become pregnant during her first sexual experience with any passing man who seeks only gratification. She alone is held responsible for all the rest. She will either kill what lies in her belly or she will be responsible for all the maintenance and what follows.

Where then is the equality?

In these societies, the un-Islamic ignorant contracts of marriage are no longer a guarantee for women. For if a man can find a woman whom he can enjoy without these guarantees and responsibilities, why should he turn to marriage with its restrictions and consequences? Moreover, since in these societies women have been made equal to men in the right to terminate marriage, these contracts do not remain but for the briefest period of time, sometimes not lasting more than a few hours. Again, where is the equality?

Marriage in Islam

My brothers and sisters everywhere!

I call you to learn about the marriage contract as it is set forth in the pure Islamic law that was sent down upon Allah’s final prophet and His messenger, our master Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him).

In this contract their is such wisdom and perfection whereas it achieves bliss, peace, and security for all men and women upon this earth.

In the [Islamic marriage contract], Allah distributed the rights and obligations between men and women in a just and wise manner. He has appointed

for it a safety valve in the man’s hand as He (Exalted be He) has said:

“Women have such honorable rights as obligations, but men have a [single] degree above them.” (The Quran 2:228)

Without going into the details of this contract:

• In the [Islamic] marriage contract, Allah obligated upon the man to provide the woman a dower11 and maintenance which includes her food, housing, and clothing12. Allah placed maintenance of the children upon the husband alone. Allah absolved women from the responsibility of seeking a livelihood and the necessities of life for her or her children.

• Allah required from the woman obedience and sincerity toward her husband, that to him alone she gives her all, and that she guard his dwelling as she has been entrusted with that.

• As for sexual pleasure, each spouse is to have pleasure with the other.13

• Among the rights that Allah gave to the man alone is the right to separate and divorce his wife. This was such in order to preserve the secretsof marriage, so that he is not forced to turn to injustice to the woman, degrade her, or spread her secrets.

• Upon divorcing his wife, Allah required that a man maintain her for the waiting period (which if she is pregnant is until she gives birth; if she is menstruating for three periods; and for all others three months).

In any case, he is forever responsible for the maintenance of her children.

If she is going to raise the children, it is [also] his responsibility to maintain her. By that a woman is absolved from working or seeking the necessities of life while she is a wife or when as a mother she is raising [his] children after divorce.

• Allah also gave women the right to leave the marriage contract. In this case, however, she must return to him the dower he gave her, unless he drops that condition.

• Allah made the marriage contract “a strong pledge,”14 each one of them, man and woman, must legally uphold this bond in this world and will accordingly be judged in the Hereafter.

• Islam gave men the right to marry up to four women at one time, provided he is able to maintain them all.15 Of course, a woman who accepts this, accepts such willingly and out of consent. Allah - Glorified and Exalted be He - has permitted this, so that no woman would remain without a husband; no man would turn to illicit sex (for lawful means have been facilitated for him); and so that each child would have a correct lineage to its parents.

Without doubt those who desired to restrict a man to a single wife, arguing for equality harshly reject that a man gather under his custody more than one woman; where unable to achieve that.

Many men by instinct and nature cannot restrict themselves to one woman or else he will engage in illicit sexual intercourse. When the preachers of [this] “false” equality wanted to oppose the natural way, it collided with them. This resulted in men taking girlfriends and lovers.

Illicit sex spread, illegitimate children multiplied, and [human] suffering became widespread.

Among this suffering is that men have turned to raping their children.

The statistics regarding this are extremely frightful. What crime have these “preachers of equality” brought to humanity that they have turned fathers into predatory beasts raping their daughters, offspring, and family members.

This is what occurs in the closet. As for what openly occurs in public, those whose nature has been perverted are delightful, proud and boastful at the great number of wicked girlfriends and lovers they have. Yet they have a fit and haughtily reject that a man be permitted to have more than one chaste, pure wife for him alone. What a reversal of nature? And what a false claim that they seek equality between men and women?

The truth of the matter is that it is impossible to have absolute equality between men and women in what is specific for each of them. So long as it is impossible to achieve absolute equality between men and women, it is required to distribute rights and obligations [between the spouses] according to the manner in which the Creator (Glorified and Exalted be He) has assigned each one.

My brothers and sisters everywhere!

I call you to affirm the marriage contract in Islam as Allah sent it down upon the final prophet and messenger, our master Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). For when applied it is a guarantee to achieve the blessed, good life that every reasoning person hopes and strives for on this earth.

An Appeal To Save Humanity

My brothers and sisters everywhere!

We appeal you to save humanity from the wickedness into which it has fallen as result of its distancing itself from Allah’s way and religion and opposing His good and pure laws. We will remind you with some of the calamities that have befallen humanity due to its running behind its passions and traveling on Satan’s path of temptation.

Among which:

1. The Murder of One’s Offspring:

The crime of murdering children and offspring which now has reached appalling numbers as a result of abortions performed secretly or openly.16 This is among the results of making lawful illicit sex and immorality, charging women with working for a living, and facilitating the means that allow men to get women as they want.

2. The Spread of Illicit Sex and Immorality:

The making lawful of illicit sex is a great crime against humanity. Every religion and religious law that Allah sent down from heaven has forbidden this hideous crime and has decreed for it the most severest punishment, specifically stoning, for any man or woman who previously was married and engages in illicit sexual intercourse.

This punishment has come in the law sent down upon Moses (upon him peace) as mentioned in Deuteronomy 22:20-24 regarding the women who her husband consummates marriage with her and finds her not a virgin.

“But if this thing be true, and the tokens of virginity be not found for the damsel: then they shall bring out the damsel to the door of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her with stones that she shall die: because she hath wrought folly in Israel, to play the whore in her father’s house: so shalt thou put evil away from among you.

“If a man be found lying with a woman married to an husband, then they shall both of them die, both the man that lay with the women, and the women: so shalt thou put away evil from Israel.

“If a damsel that is a virgin be betrothed unto a husband, and a man find her in the city, and lie with her; then ye shall bring them both unto the gate of that city, and ye shall stone them with stones that they die; the damsel, because she cried not, being in the city; and the man, because he hath humbled his neighbor’s wife: so thou shalt put away evil from among you.”

Without doubt that this which has been sent down upon Moses (uponhim peace) is the law that Jesus (upon him peace) brought; for Jesus came as a prophet, messenger, and ruler judging by the law of the Torah.

As mentioned in the Gospel, Jesus (upon him peace) says:

Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called the great in the kingdom of heaven.” (Matthew 5:17-19)

The Messiah (upon him peace) came to command the honorable and forbid the dishonorable. Illicit sex is among the greatest of what he forbade.

The Messiah is quoted as saying:

“Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shall not commit adultery: But I say unto you. That whoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out: for it is profitable for thee that one of they members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off; for it is profitable for thee that one of they members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.” (Matthew 5:27-30)

As for the law that has been sent down upon Allah’s final messenger, Muhammad the son of Abdullah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him); it came with complete purity for society from this evil plague of illicit sexual relations by closing its doors and all means that lead to it and terminating its deleterious effects and results. In the Quran sent down [upon the Prophet Muhammad], we find the statement of Allah (Blessed and Exalted be He):

“And approach not illicit sex; surely it is an indecency, and evil as a way.” (The Quran 17:32)

To these three laws more than one-half of the inhabitants of the earth adhere today. Many of them are proud that they ascribe to these laws.

However the worshippers of their desires and the followers of Satan have set astray many of humanity from this guidance and light. The laws of Satan and the way of the Devil first came to make lawful for a man and a woman if they are consenting, single adults that they may commit this crime without it being considered a sin or evil. Then the world was increased in evil when the callers of equality announced that illicit sex is not a crime when done by any man or woman, married or single, and that this is from one’s personal freedoms. By this they hastened the destruction of the world through the bringing forth of illegitimate children, the destruction of the family, and the destruction of the wombs rendering humanity (and it has become) into a group of cattle and beasts; indeed like swine which have no sense of jealousy or morality.

3. Child Molestation and Incest

Among the greatest acts of perversion that the laws of Satan have brought about is child molestation and incest. The number of incidents have reached such a frightful percentage that warns of the destruction of civilization. The homes of the irreligious have become homes of criminal activity and predatory behavior. Lost are the ideals of a home being a repose, safety, and security. A father’s attack upon his sons, his daughters, the raping of his children and relatives is among the most hideous of what the earth has witnessed from acts of corruption and perversion.

4. Conception by Any Means and the Bringing Forth of Illegitimate Children

Without doubt by the permitting pregnancy by any means whether by the husband or others; the establishment of sperm banks; are among the greatest aggressions against humanity and the permitting of the bringing forth of a people that are not linked in descent to their fathers. This is the defilement of one’s progeny and the destruction of lineage. This will quickly result in ruin and destruction; as there will come forth generations of illegitimate children who do not know the meaning of mercy nor are members of humanity except outwardly. As for being inwardly human, it is that person who is attributed to a mother and father and lives within a circle of relatives and knows the meaning of family and harmony as this will not be present. And by this corruption, killing, and criminal behavior will become prevalent. It will become easy for a person to kill another person without blinking an eye or feeling any remorse in his heart or change of feeling.

5. The Abasement and Humiliation of Women

These unjust laws that falsely call for equality have attacked that it has taken out women from their covering and respect so that they may earn their livelihood by their own hand like men. It is an injustice to women, degraded her to the fullest, caused her to bear great weights, and has turned her into a cheap commodity that every wicked person and passing person may get hold off to throw away on the side of the road when finished.

One time, a woman was exalted in her fathers’ house. He would stand up for her needs. He would propose marriage on her behalf and men would seek of her hand from her guardian and paying her a dower. The husband was responsible for all her maintenance and if she gave birth, the maintenance of her children was upon her husband not her. When she becomes a mother it becomes her right upon her children, after the right of Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He). This is the woman that Allah’s Islamic law has honored in this manner and now has become a degraded, cheap commodity indeed sold with every product. Today a woman is a cover girl and Satan’s trap and passing enjoyment and a sadden women toiling outside the home and sadden inside the home being burdened with pregnancy and child birth and having to struggle and work to acquire a livelihood.


8 Allah says: “Forbidden to you are your mothers and daughters, your sisters, your aunts, paternal
and maternal, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your mothers who
have given suck to you, your suckling sisters, your wives’ mothers, your stepdaughters who are in your care being born of your wives you have been in to—but if you have not yet been in to them it is no fault in you—and the spouses of your sons who are of your loins, and that you should take to you two sisters together, unless it be a thing of the past; Allah is All-forgiving, All-compassionate; and wedded women, save what your own right hands own. So Allah prescribes to you. Lawful for you, beyond all that, is that you may seek, using your wealth, in wedlock and not in licence.” [The Quran 4:23-24]
9 Allah says: “Say to the believers, that they cast down their eyes and guard their private parts; that is purer for them. Allah is aware of the things they work. And say to the believing women, that they cast down their eyes and guard their private parts, and reveal not their adornment save such as is outward; and let them cast their headcoverings over the bosoms, and not reveal their adornment save to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband’s fathers, or their sons, or their husband’s sons, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or what their right hands own, or such men as attend to them, not having sexual desire, or children who have not yet attained knowledge of women’s private parts; nor let them stamp their feet, so that their hidden ornament may be known. And turn all together in repentance to Allah, O you believers; haply so you will prosper.” [The Quran 24:30-31]
10 A guardian (mahram) is defined as whoever she is forbidden to marry under any circumstance.
11 Allah says: “And give the women their dowries as a gift spontaneous.” [The Quran 4:4]
12 Allah says: “Men are the managers of the affairs of women for that Allah has preferred one of them over another, and for that they have expended of their property.” [The Quran 4:34]
13 Allah says: “... they (i.e., your wives) are a vestment for you, and you are a vestament for them.” [The Quran 2:187]
“And of His signs is that He created for you, of yourselves, spouses, that you might repose in them, and He has set between you love and mercy. Surely in that are signs for a people who consider.” [The Quran 30:21]
14 A reference to the Quran 4:21.
15 Allah says: “... marry such women as seem good to you, two, three, four; but if you fear you will not be equitable, then only one, or what your right hands own; so it is likelier you will not be partial.” [The Quran 4:3]
16 Allah says condemning the pre-Islamic Arabian practice of female infanticide: “... when the buried infant shall be asked for what sin she was slain,...” [The Quran 81:8] “... and when any of them is given the good tidings of a girl, his face is darkened and he grieves inwardly, as he hides himself from the people because of the evil of the good tidings that have been given unto him, whether he shall preserve her in humiliation, or trample her into the dust. Ah, evil is that they judge!” [The Quran 16:58-59]



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